#lessonslearned in #writing #fiction from #robertmckee and #starwars: there are consequences to shoddy #worldbuilding. Part 2: #TheForceAwakens to #MissedOpportunity

Literary talent is not enough. If you cannot tell a story, all those beautiful images and subtleties of dialogue that you spent months and months perfecting waste the paper they’re written on. What we create for the world, what it demands of us, is story. Now and forever.

Robert McKee

November. The media blitz is on to promote Rise of Skywalker, the third installment in Disney’s sequel trilogy in Star Wars. Kathleen Kennedy, the current head of Lucasfilm, is interviewed by Rolling Stone to discuss the films and their challenges. When asked about writing the third film to close the arc, Kennedy says:

Every one of these movies is a particularly hard nut to crack. There’s no source material. We don’t have comic books. We don’t have 800-page novels. We don’t have anything other than passionate storytellers who get together and talk about what the next iteration might be.

Kathleen Kennedy to Rolling Stone, November 2019

It seems a curious line, to specifically point out how Star Wars has no comic books. A dig, perhaps, at the Marvel films and aaaaaaaaaaaall those comic story lines at the screenwriters’ disposal for adapting into film?

Or did Kennedy forget Star Wars DID have comics and novels–decades worth, in fact?

In 2014, Disney officially announced all the published Expanded Universe (EU) stories of the Star Wars universe were no longer canon. All the adventures that took place after Darth Vader hurled the Emperor into the abyss were gone.

For folks like my friends and brothers who had read the comics and novels, this was a serious blow to the gut. For more casual fans like myself, who grew up with the movies and the goofy spin-off cartoons–

R2-D2 is HILARIOUS in these. A big favorite with my droid-lovin’ kiddos.
The theme song got better…eventually.

–I wasn’t angry so much as confused. If the cartoons can pull one or two tertiary characters from the original trilogy and build successful stories around them, why was it so important to blow up the ENTIRE EU and all its storylines? Each one had already undergone serious testing with lovers of sci-fi, let alone Star Wars. It’s not like all the storylines had potential for film adaptation, but surely a few had promise, right?

But Disney didn’t want to continue the saga in the galaxy far, far away as other creators had seen it. They wanted their Star Wars to be like the Star Wars movies from the 70s and 80s, only different enough so they could make the most money with the least amount of change.

The art of story is in decay, and as Aristotle observed twenty-three hundred years ago, when storytelling goes bad, the result is decadence.

Robert McKee

Enter The Force Awakens.

Damn, if that teaser STILL doesn’t give me chills. We have a panicked Storm Trooper–a human, panicking Storm Trooper. This isn’t just some eleventh generation of clones from the prequels, but a person, and this person looks sincerely scared. For the casual fans like myself, this had never been seen before. The first few seconds of this teaser promised audiences a new kind of Star Wars story. Throw in a new droid, renegade girl, and an X-Wing pilot, sure, but the real compliment to that opening new thing was the climactic-yet-familiar thing: the Millennium Falcon fighting TIE Fighters. Over the course of roughly 90 seconds, the teaser promises audiences a balance of familiar and unfamiliar to create a new Star Wars story.

Don’t worry, I won’t go into an analysis of all the trailers. It just felt important to show that in 2015, The Force Awakens looked extremely promising to the fans who grew up with the first six films, and now have toy-loving children who of course have seen those films, too. After Disney had yanked the EU, devoted fans like my brothers were excited to see what Disney wanted to put in its place. Considering the cool work they’d done bridging the gap between prequels and original trilogy with Star Wars: Rebels, Disney had a lot of audience goodwill in their favor, visible in all the Cosplay and YouTubers whooping with light sabers as they prepped their own audiences for movie reviews.*

Then folks saw the movie.

Unity is critical, but not sufficient. Within this unity, we must induce as much variety as possible…we don’t want to hit the same note over and over…. They key to varying a repetitious cadence is research. Superficial knowledge leads to a bland, monotonous telling. With authorial knowledge we can prepare a feast of pleasures.

Robert McKee

Many were thrilled to see a style more like the original trilogy than the CGI-infested prequels. However, many–me included–felt a very strange deja vu. Echos, if you will, that felt too like what’s come before. And we felt it before the opening scrawl had departed for the stars.

Luke Skywalker has vanished. Woah! The only known Jedi in this new series was officially missing? How? What happened? One sentence in, the audience’s curiosity is piqued. But then we keep reading: In his absence, the sinister FIRST ORDER has risen from the ashes of the Empire and will not rest until Skywalker, the last Jedi, has been destroyed.

Hold on.

So, that whole chucking-the-Emperor-into-the-abyss didn’t kill the Empire? Hmm. Well, it’s just the head of state. Big Bureaucracy like that could probably run for a bit without the head. But if this First Order is looking for Luke, then they must not be responsible for his absence. So is there another villain here? What’s going on?

The scrawl goes on: With the support of the REPUBLIC, General Leia Organa leads a brave RESISTANCE. She is desperate to find her brother Luke and gain his help in restoring peace and justice to the galaxy.

So…ok. the Republic of the prequels is back now, but there’s still a First Order that came out of the Empire. If Leia’s leading the Resistance, that must mean the First Order has more power than the Republic, I guess? Who’s even in the Republic? Wouldn’t the First Order technically be the minority, the underdog?

We’ve defined setting in terms of period, duration, location, and level of conflict. These four dimensions frame the story’s world, but to inspire the multitude of creative choices you need to tell an original, cliché-free story, you must fill that frame with a depth and breadth of detail.

Robert McKee

Herein lies the next major mistake Disney made with Star Wars: they wanted all the same stakes of the original trilogy without putting in the effort to bring the galaxy to that point. People like Rebel Princess Leia, so keep her in that position. People liked the baddie Empire, so make a new Empire. People liked the Death Star, so let’s make a new one. How the First Order–consisting from, as the scrawl said, the “ashes” of the Empire–has the might they do to build huge fleets and planet-killers is never explained. Why doesn’t the Republic have its own army? At the very least it’d have reused whatever’s left from the Empire…unless the First Order took ALL of that? So then what the heck is in the Republic, and why are they separate from the Resistance?

Time never moves without effect. Years have passed since Return of the Jedi, and yet good and evil are right back where they were. History may be cyclical, but something must happen to reset the cycle.

Disney never shares that something with us. It’s as if they hit the reset button on a video game, selecting different faces and places, but leaving the stakes the same.

However, as my husband Bo reminds me, there’s only so much one can pack in the first movie. Backstory can always help explain things later in the narrative arc, when a breather in action is needed. So at this point, audiences have to hope for a quiet moment with a sage-like character–Leia, perhaps, since she’s the only one the scrawl tells us is present–to clue audiences and new characters in as to how the galaxy ended up the way it did. A scene with some exposition could better clarify why the stakes are what they are so audiences can care about the characters involved in those stakes. This didn’t have to happen in The Force Awakens, but the opportunity was there in one of the first characters audiences see: the scared Storm Trooper from the teaser.

The opening scene echoes the entrance of the black-cloaked figure in a mask, Kylo Ren. The daring pilot’s hidden the clue to Skywalker in his droid, BB-8, and sends him off…He wants the map to Skywalker from what the title scrawl calls an “old ally”–not anyone we’d have actually seen in the first six films, mind you. Just Max von Sydow talking to Adam Driver (Kylo) like they had a history…not that we know any of this history…

As a story opens, the audience, consciously or instinctively, inspects the value-charged landscape of world and characters, trying to separate good from evil, right from wrong…. The worst of people believe themselves good. Hitler thought he was the savior of Europe.

Robert McKee

It doesn’t take much to see the evil masked people killing the good guys. But one, one does stand out: a Storm Trooper who runs to assist one of his dying comrades, the dying man putting a bloody hand to the other’s helmet and streaking it with blood. The Storm Trooper pulls back, and you can see the panic in his body language. He no longer lifts a gun when ordered.

We see a Storm Trooper, always the symbol of order and Empire, breaking free.

THAT gets our attention. Something is different with this character. A Storm Trooper turning good? Maybe we could learn about the First Order through this character! Audiences fixate upon this character who clearly questions his masters, who fears the life he’s in. As McKee calls it in Story, this Storm Trooper, named Finn by the pilot, becomes our Center of Good in the first ten minutes.

Only we’re diverted after that to Rey, a lone girl on a desert planet doing the same thing day in, day out…kind of like a farm boy on Tatooine, methinks…scavenging crashed ships for parts, dreaming of a life elsewhere. But I’ll give credit where it’s due: the first scene with Rey does a beautiful job telling the story of her life without her saying a word. A quick montage of her day, and we know what her life’s been like living in a hollowed out Walker.

So…so where is our Center of Good? Are we following the Storm Trooper, or the scavenger?

Dimensions fascinate; contradictions in nature or behavior rivet the audience’s concentration. Therefore, the protagonist must be the most dimensional character in the cast to focus empathy on the star role. If not, the Center of Good decenters; the fictional universe flies apart; the audience loses balance.

Robert McKee

Rey is, from the start, a good character. She helps the BB-8 droid without knowing who it is, she doesn’t sell it off when that would easily give her enough food for months. She’s consistently nice and helpful.

Finn, however, was clearly raised to be a mindless soldier. He’s been conditioned to follow orders and kill without mercy, yet this guy doesn’t. Despite his environment and all that he knows, he is different. And that, by definition, makes him stand out. It makes him unique.

It makes audiences want to see him as the Center of Good, to overcome the old identity of Storm Trooper and discover who he truly is.

Fine writing puts less stress on what happens than on to whom it happens and why and how it happens.

Robert McKee

By the time we see Storm Trooper Finn again, he helps break out the imprisoned pilot so they can both get off the vast, fancy, well-stocked star destroyer. Their ship is struck, and Finn wakes to find himself alone in the wreckage. He takes the pilot’s abandoned jacket and wanders the desert until he stumbles upon the village where Rey and the droid are. Finn tells them what happens, and takes on the guise of being a Resistance fighter. When Troopers and Fighters come, he doesn’t simply run from his old life. He protects the droid his pilot friend wanted to rescue and the girl whom the droid’s befriended.

TRUE CHARACTER can only be expressed through choice in dilemma. How the person chooses to act under pressure is who he is—the greater the pressure, the truer and deeper the choice to character.

Robert McKee

These are the kinds of choices that engaged fans like me in The Force Awakens: the Storm Trooper breaking free of his old coding to join the fight for good and, in consequence, discover his own self-worth. I would have loved to learn more about the First Order way of life through Finn’s memories. I would have loved to see Finn reach out to those he cared about, like the dying Storm Trooper in the first scene, and see if other Troopers were capable of finding the good within. I would have loved to see Finn’s potential with a light saber as shown on the movie’s poster.

Fans were excited for something new, and a story of a Storm Trooper Turning Good would have been dazzlingly new as far as these cinematic episodes go. We were ready to follow a classic story in a familiar galaxy with this unique character.

CLASSICAL DESIGN means a story built around an active protagonist who struggles against primarily external forces of antagonism to pursue his or her desire, through continuous time, within a consistent and causally connected fictional reality, to a closed ending of absolute, irreversible change.

Robert McKee

Alas, it was not meant to be.


You know, I really hoped I could do one film per blog post, but there is just waaaaaaaay too much to cover regarding plot holes, characterization, and antagonists. Since I have students submitting projects this week, I’ll likely save the next Force Awakens post on worldbuilding and plot holes for later. I think we could all use a music break, right? Who doesn’t love a trip into a land fantastic, rich in history and ripe for adventure?

Read on, share on, and write on, my friends!

*Video game and movie critic Mauler has an excellent series on The Last Jedi. While his The Force Awakens series remains unfinished, I still recommend what he’s done so far, especially since his thoughts on the world-building problems inspired me to share my own.

36 thoughts on “#lessonslearned in #writing #fiction from #robertmckee and #starwars: there are consequences to shoddy #worldbuilding. Part 2: #TheForceAwakens to #MissedOpportunity

  1. Maybe Kathleen Kennedy should have said ‘we had a blank canvass and that was great’. I know it wasn’t exactly like that because characters existed + there was a previous history to keep true to, but what the characters did next was a blank canvass. They spend too much time jumping around the screen rectifying flaws from earlier stuff and forgot, it’s fiction – anything is possible ~ George

    Liked by 1 person

    • Someone once called the first Star Wars “a perfect storm.” With Williams’ score, the powerful effects, and classic story arc, people were sold! And I’m even for the Ewoks, too. 🙂 They’re great escapist adventure. It’s when people try to shove *more* into the films that they get bloated–or worse, the agenda forces any sort of story out. 😦

      Liked by 2 people

  2. I agree — there’s far too much to unpack here to cover one film in only one blog post. I really like how you’re linking the movie with the quotes from the craft book: it not only helps illuminate the issues with the movie, but provides concrete examples for the advice from the book.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Right then. Here I am. I’ve got it right today, young Ms Lee…not like last week when I decided to savour your blog last and in the event forgot to do so. I wish I knew more about Star Wars. Years back I saw, with my two eldest sons, the first…although were numbered otherwise…three Star Wars movies and quite enjoyed them. I well remember my eldest when going to university sold all his pristine Star Wars toys for an obscene sum of money. In recent times I did see one movie that was, if I recall correctly, set in the period pre the main franchise. No idea of its name though. I also enjoyed that although the characters were all killed off at the end. What I would say…and this applies to TV also…is why, oh why make more episodes when the makers must know that they will inevitably decline in quality. Seasons after seasons of once fine TV deteriorates with every new season to the extent ones I once enjoyed are taken off my watchlist. Why not take the risk and simply create something brand new. A money issue I presume is at the nub of the issue. There you have it; my take on the subject. A good read by the way. Yours, The Old Fool

    Liked by 1 person

    • Star Wars Toys!!!!! We still have some of ours, and the little Bs LOVE them.

      Oh, money is the root of all of this, to be sure. Disney thought they were buying a golden goose when they took Star Wars, and so all they cared about was making more movies–not stories, but movies.

      Once upon a time, Star Wars WAS the risky venture. Sadly, that time is a long, long time ago…

      Liked by 2 people

      • Multiple sequels in fictional forms (there are others where it works but they are irrelevant here), whatever their genre, demand two key elements; both at odds with each other.
        1. The sequel and subsequent sequels to a large extent have to allow for the fact that the reader/viewer/whatever may have no knowledge of what evolved previously. It therefore consumes valuable space in any production to the inevitable detriment of said sequel to write a script to cater for newcomers.
        2. In conjunction with that any such production also has to be aware that disciples of whatever franchise don’t need to know what has gone before. They know ‘all that’ already.
        As you know, my knowledge of Star Wars is limited, yet from what I’ve been told and/or read they have ended up between the devil and the deep blue sea. I imagine producers can get away with it for one, maybe two sequels but beyond that the cancer-like growth of the tale is just too large to handle and to carry on becomes commercial lunacy as eventually it will fall apart.
        There you have it, young Ms Lee. The musings of The Old Fool

        Liked by 2 people

      • And your musings are quite spot on. The whole story was so slipshod, so higgeldy-piggeldy, that in the end it was clear they never had a single see-through storyline for these films. Such a waste.


  4. Oh yeah dear Jean , that’s the same conception which I had when I came out of the cinema! A Summary of almost whole story that has been happened in the last episodes. I am a freaky fan of the star wars, therefore, came out with the moisty eyes but disappointed! Great description dear friend, thank you 🙏❤❤😘🙏

    Liked by 1 person

  5. As good as this new movie is (or isn’t) the damage has already been done. Just a few years ago Son would have been dreaming, thinking, breathing all things Star Wars. Almost banging at the doors to see the movie. Now it’s changed I quote. ‘Dad I can’t be bothered to see it, someone will tell me how it finishes’. Compare that to the excitement surrounding a new Marvel movie or the next Sherlock Holmes movie. They kinda forgot how to make a fun movie. One which stimulates the imagination. Maybe just a few reads of the old comics might have pointed them in the right direction.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. A fascinating break-down, Jean. I must pay more attention, next time I watch a Star Wars.

    Maybe I’ll put off seeing the latest installment until you’ve finished your analysis…

    Liked by 1 person

  7. Loved this analysis, Jean, especially as I actually got to see this last trilogy at the cinema instead of on videotape, TV and DVD. (You’ll have gathered I was never a diehard Star Wars fan.) So, there are plot holes; there are too many coincidences; and there are way too many scientific impossibilities. But I always take the view that, more than the films being in the space western genre, they are fairytale, pure and simple, and who looks for logic and plausibility and consistency in fairytale?

    Still, for those of us whose gut instinct is that a narrative hangs together it’s irksome, I agree, which is why I’m eagerly anticipating your next deconstruction!

    Liked by 2 people

    • Oh, I agree about the fairytale element. That’s part of what made The Last Jedi so confusing–what’s all this about fuel and super fuel and chasing down to run out of fuel? Whaaa?

      I’ve always loved the adventure of stories here. And there is so, so much *potential* in Disney’s films. It’s just…well, rather like Jackson’s Hobbit films. There are beautiful moments, but they’re too often lost in the muck of everything else.

      Liked by 2 people

      • I’ve agreed with those who suggested that The Hobbit trilogy should have a ‘director’s cut’ taking it back down to one film, excising the pointless subplots and getting closer to the original narrative and, hopefully, the original magic.

        Yes, Tolkien’s novel itself went from avuncular whimsy to full-blown epic, but a sensitive re-edit could retain the essence of the tale. I’d buy this, the opposite of the much-vaunted Extended Editions!

        Liked by 2 people

  8. Gotta love Star Wars. I remember watching the original movies when they came out decades ago. Got to see it all over again when they added to them in the 90’s. Then would you believe it, the Millenium brought out even more! 😀

    Liked by 1 person

  9. I have watched this one and at least I enjoyed it more than Rogue One, which I found really confusing and ultimately pointless – even when Himself pointed out what they were trying to do. I found this a fascinating article, Jean. Many thanks for your step by step analysis – so interesting and helpful!

    Liked by 1 person

    • I know, right? There’s a lot of talk–with paper evidence to boot, I believe, from sources like Bob flippin’ Iger–that Disney didn’t want to have to pay George Lucas creative licensing fees for likeness of characters and such, or at least pay more than absolutely necessary. That’s why C-3PO has a red arm in Episode VII for no real reason, why Han Solo’s dressed differently and so on. It was aaaaaaaaaaaaaaall a numbers game. 😦


  10. Pingback: #lessonslearned in #writing #fiction from #RobertMcKee and #StarWars: there are consequences to shoddy #worldbuilding. Part 3: Digging #plotholes with false #mystery. | Jean Lee's World

  11. Pingback: #writerproblems: #writing awesome #characterdesign in three sentences or less. | Jean Lee's World

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